3.ii User-Derived Content

Citizen  Cyberscience  Centre  and  Open  Knowledge  Foundation.  2013. PyBossa. http://pybossa.com.

An open source platform, PyBossa enables the creation of web applications for individuals to participate in and submit content to. More specifically, PyBossa is a micro-tasking platform that utilizes crowdsourcing in order to carry out small, user-derived tasks and contributions. To date, Crowdcrafting (crowdcrafting.org) remains the most notable project developed on PyBossa.

Gruzd, Anatoliy. 2006–16. Netlytic. http://netlytic.org/.

Netlytic detects and expresses the innate social networks of online participants based on users’ digital tracks. This web-based social network analysis tool summarizes large amounts of text and discovers social networks from electronic communications, including emails, forums, blogs, chats, YouTube, and Twitter. Netlytic allows a user to either capture or import relevant online data, and to analyze this data for emergent themes, trends, and relationships. Furthermore, with Netlytic, users can visualize these communication networks.

*Insemtives. 2009–12. INSEMTIVES. http://insemtives.eu/.

This suite of tools focuses on the creation of semantic content via incentivebased gaming environments. INSEMTIVES aims to bridge the gap between machine-readable computational data and the necessary limitations of automating semantic content creation tasks. By providing incentives, INSEMTIVES attempts to inspire individuals to manually create, extend, or revise semantic content. This tool is geared toward social knowledge creation through user-generated content and participation.

Jacoby,   John   James   (lead   developer).   2009.   BuddyPress.  http://buddypress.org/.

BuddyPress is a social network tool built off its parent project, WordPress. With BuddyPress, a user can instigate a social network customized for various purposes or communities. In this way, BuddyPress actively constructs a framework for social knowledge creation. Of note, BuddyPress is open source, easily extensible, and provides a range of features.

LearningTimes, LLC. 2013. BadgeOS. http://badgeos.org/badgestack/.

BadgeOS is a free WordPress plug-in that facilitates the creation of rewardsor achievementsbased environments. It enables organizations and individuals alike to create sites that incorporate the currently popular practices of structuring digital activities in a game-inspired manner. The Badge Stack add-on helps indicate activities and successes by including rewards and credentials in the form of levels, quests, achievements, and badges. BadgeOS uses the widely recognized credential system from Mozilla Badges. As well, all badges and credentials are shareable through integration with Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, blogs, and even individuals’ resumes.

Mideast  Youth.  2016.  CrowdVoice:  Tracking  Voices  of  Protest.  http://crowdvoice.org/.

CrowdVoice is an overtly political web service that harnesses crowdsourcing to track and provide updates on protests around the world. The website allows protesters to share, and others to view, information, images, video, links, and updates of events. In this way, CrowdVoice offers an alternative to standard news outlets and draws attention to corruption, violence, uprisings, and revolutions as they occur. This project is not open source due to risk of persecution for involvement with or contribution to the site. CrowdVoice is an exemplary instance of how userderived content can foster social knowledge creation and even, perhaps, social change.

*Mozilla Foundation. 2011. Open Badges. https://openbadges.org.

Mozilla’s Open Badges is an alternative credential-granting system designed for the public recognition of non-conventional learning and success. Broadly articulated as a democratizing service, Open Badges allows various organizations to accredit their participants within a recognizable system. In an era of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and citizen scholars, Open Badges embodies the ethos of the decentralized network of contemporary learning, accreditation, and social knowledge creation.

Open Knowledge Foundation. 2016. CKAN. http://ckan.org/.

Employed by various government catalogues, CKAN is both a web-based data portal and data management system. CKAN supports data publishers (governments, data providers) with services to publish data through a guided process, customize metadata and branding, manage versions, access user analytics, and to store data. As a data portal, CKAN encourages data users (researchers, journalists, programmers, NGO’s, citizens) to build extensions, search and tag data sets, engage in a social network, and access metadata and APIs. CKAN’s dual role induces social knowledge creation through both user-generated and usermanipulated content. Notably, CKAN is completely open source and easily customizable.

*Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media (George Mason University). 2007–17. Omeka. http://omeka.org.

Omeka is an example of social knowledge creation through user-driven or generated content. An open source content management system, Omeka was designed to display online digital collections of scholarly editions and cultural heritage artifacts. This content management system acts as a collections management tool and an archival digital collection system, allowing for productive scholarly and non-scholarly exhibitions to develop. Omeka includes an extensive list of features aimed at scholars, museum professionals, librarians, archivists, educators, and other enthusiasts. Of note, the Roy Rosenzweig Center also developed the open bibliography initiative Zotero (included in this annotated bibliography).

Transliteracies Project (University of California Santa Barbara). 2012. RoSE.    http://rose.english.ucsb.edu/.

RoSE aims to foster a more networked, holistic environment for humanities research, scholarship, and practices. By combining farmed information from the digital library Project Gutenberg and the semantic knowledge base YAGO with user-generated content, RoSE methodically constructs a social network of collaborators, authors, movements, and works. These relationships are visualized either as a social network graph or in a packed radial style. In this way, users can both contribute to and benefit from the linking of various individuals and texts.